Your location:

[Reprint] Press a ring, gold thousand two! How is the world's largest source of synthetic diamonds refined?

Release time:

2022/08/01

Number of views:

1000


In the last week of July, the breeding diamond board was on fire.

The Dongcai Diamond sector index soared 10.5% in a week, and the concept stock power diamond and the Chinese Army Red Arrow, Sifang Da and so on have hit new highs. Huifeng Diamond, which has just been listed, also broke through the recent weak trend of the Beijing Stock Exchange, rising 19.3% in a week.

Behind the eye-catching market, are two groups of data to attract market attention.

Production and sales fly with performance, detonating the cultivation of diamond market

The first is the midseason to nurture the overall strong performance of the Diamond Circuit.

In July, listed companies began to disclose the forecast, cultivating the collective "harvest" of diamond concept stocks in the first half of 2022. From the current forecast, the Yellow River cyclone net profit in the first half of the year increased by nearly 2 times, and the other two leading soldiers red Arrow and power diamond are expected to double their net profit. Especially in the second quarter, in the case that some manufacturing enterprises were greatly affected by the epidemic, the net profit of Power Diamond, China Red Arrow and Sifang Da in a single quarter still refreshed a historical record.

                                    金刚石行业1.png

Secondly, in the first half of this year, the trade data of cultivated diamonds also showed a continuous boom trend.

Since 2022, India's cumulative imports of cultivated diamond rough increased by 72% year-on-year, finished product exports increased by 81%, in June jewelry retail market off-season, this import/export growth rate still reached 47%/57% year-on-year. India is the main processing place for cultivating middle diamond cutting and grinding, and its import and export data objectively reflect the global industry boom in 2022.

                                    金刚石行业2.png

The world diamond trade had been growing year by year. In addition, in 2022, the global diamond market pattern has produced some new changes. After the outbreak of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the United States imposed a series of sanctions on the Russian diamond company Alrosa, one of the two giants of the world's diamond mining, resulting in a 30% reduction in natural diamond mining and rough supply in 2022. The minister of mines and Energy of Botswana, the world's largest producer of diamonds by value, said that this gap is likely to be filled by the cultivation of diamonds.

                                    金刚石行业3.png

Demand growth combined with regional conflicts brought about by the supply of "black swans", diamond prices rose. In the latest news, De Beers, the world's largest diamond giant, has quietly increased production plans for 2022.

                                     金刚石行业4.png

Cultivated diamonds have exactly the same properties as natural diamonds,It can be used as a perfect substitute to meet the global market's demand for this superhard material. China's cultivated diamond production capacity will account for about half of global production by 2021.

 

This is also the deep reason for the A-share cultivation of the diamond track in the first half of 2022.

 

"When the press rings, the gold is 10,000 taels."

 

Behind the powerful data is the effective play of industrial cluster effect. When it comes to cultivating diamonds, many people's first reaction is the production of Henan.

At present, 80 percent of "Made in China" cultivated diamonds come from Henan. Industry leaders Zhongnan Diamond (a subsidiary of Zhongbing Red Arrow), Yellow River Cyclone, Yu Diamond (delisted) and Power Diamond are also located in the province.

                                         金刚石行业5.png

为何河南成为了培育钻石“大本营”?事情要从1960年说起。

 

新中国建国后百废待兴,人造金刚石一度只能进口。而随着中苏关系的恶化,前苏联在1960年对中国停止了金刚石供应。同年,位于河南郑州的三磨所,接到了一项保密代号为“121”的国家重点科研项目。这个课题的任务就是研发人造金刚石,解决精密制造领域被国外“卡脖子”的难题。

 

 

1963年,中国第一颗人造金刚石问世。我国成为继美、苏等国之后掌握这项技术的第五个国家。

 

1965年,中国第一台‘铰链式六面顶压机’在郑州研发成功,人造金刚石在我国进入产业化阶段。60年代,一克拉人造金刚石市价约30元,一台六面顶压机一天能生产300多克拉金刚石,折合1万多元。行业内有一句话这样描述人造金刚石产业:“压机一响,黄金万两”。

                                     金刚石行业6.png

河南就此登上世界培育钻石产业舞台。郑州三磨所也随之成为中国磨具磨料界的“黄埔军校”,培养过许多培育钻石业技术人员,一部分人又将技术与经验带至省内各处落地开花。

 

“中国钻石之都”,是这个80万人小县城

 

80年代,郑州三磨所工程师冯金章回到家乡,河南商丘的柘城县创办了邵园金刚石厂,过程中培养了一大批技术工人。力量钻石的创始人邵大勇,也曾经在此工作。

 

1985年以后“转企改制”风生水起,这批技术人才纷纷自立门户。如今,柘城县的培育钻石上市公司除了力量钻石,还有7月18日刚刚从新三板“晋级”北交所的惠丰钻石。柘城这个不到80万人的小县城,早已成为中原大地上的“中国钻石之都 ” 。

 

另外,郑州三磨所还与在许昌长葛市的黄河实业公司合作,成立了黄河旋风。其它和三磨所有深度合作的还有南阳市的中南钻石。中南钻石是上市公司中兵红箭的子公司,金刚石产销量连续多年位居世界第一,压机台数也领先行业。

                     

                                     金刚石行业7.png

原本就在郑州的四方达、富耐克等超硬材料企业,也与郑州三磨所多多少少有合作。2018年,郑州三磨所牵头联合力量钻石、惠丰钻石、富耐克等企业,一起成立了河南省功能金刚石研究院。这些企业之中,富耐克的IPO申请也已于6月21日获北交所受理。

 

河南人造金刚石产业有如今的集群效应,可以说,郑州三磨所居功至伟。

 

2017年,三磨所与中国机械工业国际合作有限公司等资产注入上市公司,更名后,成为现在的国机精工,在培育钻石制造机械领域是绝对龙头。

 

培育钻石“钱”景如何?

 

从世界钻石预计供需缺口来看,培育钻石未来市场空间较大。

 

全球已探明的天然金刚石储量大约25亿克拉,目前每年全世界天然金刚石产量约9000万-1亿克拉。换言之,以目前的矿储和产能,世界天然金刚石矿最多还能约开采25年。但下游军工、半导体等工业领域对于超硬材料的需求逐年增加。

 

在这样的背景下,培育钻石成为了“全村的希望”。仅本月内,俄罗斯有两个州地方政府签署了关于建设培育钻石生产中心的协议,以色列的全球第一家100%太阳能生长培育钻石厂商Lusix完成了一轮9000万美元的融资,投资者包括LVMH集团。在国内,郑州市政府印发了《关于加快新材料产业发展的实施意见》,明确了培育钻石全产业链布局目标。

                                                                                                 金刚石行业8.png

目前全球培育钻石销售额渗透率仅有5%,贝恩咨询预计这一数字在2025年会达到16%。券商测算,中国产培育钻石原石2022-2025年需求满足率从68%提升至85%,行业总体供不应求。未来几年,已经成熟的河南培育钻石产业群,仍将对世界培育钻石市场价格有举足轻重的影响。

 

                                                                     金刚石行业9.png

 

在国内,2021年下半年起,A股行业调研就已传递出培育钻石供不应求的信号,扩产成为行业主要方向。行业相关人员表示,现在市场需求快速增长,所有的厂商加起来也都满足不了市场需求,各家的重点都放在扩充产能上。据统计,去年至今国内培育钻石行业已新增压机数量2000台,对应新增产能约150万克拉/年。

 

                                     金刚石行业10.png

 

培育钻石主要厂商的头部效应较强,因为限制扩产的核心因素在于压机的数量,压机核心零部件铰链梁又受限于产能。郑州华晶背后虽然有着黯然退市的豫金刚石,其压机数量仍然较可观。券商观点认为,积极扩张产能的培育钻石头部企业,仍将享受行业上升期红利

 

河南的“培育钻石军团”,是中国制造业转型升级的一个缩影,随着产业链企业积极募资扩产,世界“钻石自由”或许就在不远的将来。